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Common polishing methods
There are several kinds of polishing methods commonly used at present.
        1.1 mechanical polishing: mechanical polishing is a smoothing method to get smooth surface by cutting, plastic deformation of material surface and removing the bump after being polished. It usually uses stone strip, wool wheel, sand paper and so on, mainly by manual operation. Special parts, such as turntable surface, can use auxiliary tools such as turntable, and the surface quality is high. The method of superfinishing and polishing is adopted. The ultra precision polishing is a special abrasive tool, which is tightly pressed on the workpiece surface to rotate at high speed in the abrasive polishing fluid. Using this technology, the surface roughness of Ra0.008 M can be achieved, which is the highest among all kinds of polishing methods. This method is often used in optical lens moulds.
        1.2 chemical polishing: chemical polishing is to make the surface of the material in the chemical medium surface protruding part preferentially dissolve in the concave part, so as to get the smooth surface. The main advantage of this method is that it does not need complex equipment, can polish complex workpiece, and can polish many workpieces simultaneously, with high efficiency. The key problem of chemical polishing is the preparation of polishing fluid. The surface roughness obtained by chemical polishing is generally 10 to m.
        1.3 electrolytic polishing: the basic principle of electrolytic polishing is the same as chemical polishing, that is, by selectively dissolving the tiny protruding part of the material surface, making the surface smooth. Compared with chemical polishing, the effect of cathode reaction can be eliminated and the effect is better. The electrochemical polishing process is divided into two steps: (1) the macro leveling dissolve product diffuses into the electrolyte, and the surface roughness of the material decreases, Ra > 1 m. (2) low light level anodizing and surface brightness increasing, Ra < 1 m.
        1.4 ultrasonic polishing: put the workpiece into the abrasive suspension and put it in the ultrasonic field together, depending on the oscillating effect of ultrasonic, grinding and polishing the abrasive on the surface of the workpiece. Ultrasonic machining has little macroscopic force and will not cause deformation of workpiece, but the manufacture and installation of tooling are more difficult. Ultrasonic machining can be combined with chemical or electrochemical methods. On the basis of solution corrosion and electrolysis, the ultrasonic vibration stirring solution is applied to dissolve the dissolving products on the surface of the workpiece, the corrosion or the electrolyte is uniform near the surface, and the cavitation effect of ultrasonic in the liquid can also inhibit the corrosion process and be beneficial to the light brightening of the surface.
        1.5 fluid polishing: fluid polishing relies on high-speed flow of liquid and its abrasive particles to scour the surface of the workpiece for polishing purposes. Common methods are abrasive jet machining, liquid jet machining, fluid dynamic grinding and so on. Hydrodynamic grinding is driven by hydraulics, so that liquid media carrying abrasive particles can flow across the workpiece surface at high speed. The medium is mainly made of special compound (polymer like substance) with good flowability under low pressure and mixed with abrasives. Silicon carbide powder can be used for abrasive.
1.6 magnetic lapping and polishing: magnetic abrasive polishing is the use of magnetic abrasive in the magnetic field to form abrasive brush, grinding the workpiece. This method has high processing efficiency, good quality, easy control of processing conditions and good working conditions. With suitable abrasives, the surface roughness can reach Ra0.1 m.

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